(1 Samuel 8-31, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings 1-11, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles 1-9, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon)
The period of "The Kingdom," continues through three reigns (Saul, David & Solomon) of about forty years each, and hence covered one hundred and twenty years.
Most of Israel's Beautiful songs and Wisdom Literature were written during this period which would include the Song of Solomon, Proverbs, Psalms, and Ecclesiastes.
Because Israel began clamoring for an earthly king (1Sam8:4-7). A reluctant Samuel, the last and greatest of the Judges, established a Kingdom and the period begins with the selection of king (Saul, 1 Sam. 9) and ends with the rejection of another king (Rehoboam, 1 Ki. 12).
This period is also refered to as “the golden age” of Israel’s history where the chosen people attained their highest glory. Art and architecture flourished, the government was firmly established, and Israel’s borders were pushed out to “the river of Egypt” in one direction, and to the Euphrates in the other.
During this period there was a visit to the witch of En-dor (1 Sam. 28) and a visit by the Queen of Sheba (1 Ki. 10).
Record of the death of 2 babies. The first (2 Sam. 12) pointed out the sin of a king, while the second (1 Ki. 3) pointed out the wisdom of king.
"And David said unto Nathan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Nathan said unto David, The Lord also hath put away thy sin; thou shalt not die. Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die" (2 Sam. 12:13, 14).
"And the king said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other. Then spake the woman whose the living child was unto the king, for her bowels yearned upon her son, and she said, O my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it. But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor thine, but divide it. Then the king answered and said, Give her the living child, and in no wise slay it: she is the mother thereof. And all Israel heard of the judgement which the king had judged; and they feared the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgement" (1 Ki. 3:25-28).
During this period a city is saved (1 Sam. 11), some animals are spared (1 Sam. 15), and a giant is slain (1 Sam. 17).
It describes a fearless prophet (Nathan, 2 Sam. 12), and a faithful priest (Zadok, 2 Sam. 15).
The Ark of God on two occasions is carried to Jerusalem, once during a celebration (2 Sam. 6), and again during a revolution (2 Sam. 15).
"So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet. And they brought in the ark of the Lord, and set it in his place, in the midst of the tabernacle that David had pitched for it: and David offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of hosts" (6:15, 17).
"And David said unto all his servants that were with him at Jerusalem, Arise, and let us flee; for we shall not else escape from Absalom: make speed to depart, lest he overtake us suddenly, and bring evil upon us, and smite the city with the edge of the sword. And lo Zadok also, and all the Levites were with him, bearing the ark of the covenant of God: and they set down the ark of God; and Abiathar went up, until all the people had done passing out of the city. And the king said unto Zadok, Carry back the ark of God into the city: if I shall find favour in the eyes of the Lord, he will bring me again, and shew me both it, and his habitation" (15:14, 24, 25).
A sister is raped (2 Sam. 13) and a son is hanged (2 Sam. 18).
A father’s son (Jonathan) protects young David from the son’s father (Saul, 1 Sam. 20).
A heathen city becomes the Holy City (2 Sam. 5).
"And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking, David cannot come in hither. Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David. And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David’s soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house" (2 Sam. 5:6-8).
Solomon is instructed (1 Ki. 2) and the Temple is constructed (1 Ki. 6). **
This period and the 3 following:
- The Kingdom (This Period)
- The Two Kingdoms
- Judah Alone and
- The Captivity
1 Samuel - Man's Choice - Saul
2 Samuel - God's Choice - David
1 Kings - Solomon and Israel
2 Kings - Israel's Kings
1 Chronicles - Solomon and the Temple
2 Chronicles - The Kings and the Temple
A study of the chart below, will show where these several records are to be found.
We will be considering this period under the following outline:
- The rise of the Kingdom
- The reign of Saul
- The reign of David
- The reign of Solomon
- Marks of the Period
VI. THE KINGDOM - 1. THE RISE OF THE KINGDOM
(1 Samuel 11:14-12:25)
(1) The sons of Samuel failed
Samuel had ruled Israel long and well. As he came to old age deep shadows were falling over the pathway of Israel. In contrast with the splendid integrity of his own life, and the dignity of his own reign, his sons, to whom he had entrusted some responsibliity of government, and who naturally would have succeeded him, were by their corruptions proving themselves unworthy to succeed their great father. The elders of Israel clearly perceived that the nation was approaching a serious crisis. (1 Samuel 8:1)
(2) The people desired a king
Assembling the nation in Ramah, the home of Samuel, the elders of the people made demand for a king to rule over them. They reminded the aged judge that his sons walked not in his ways, and they asked him to make for them a king to rule them "like the nations round about." Bringing the request of the people before the Lord, Samuel was bidden to yield to the demand and was consoled by the assurance that "they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me that I should not reign over them." He was directed to protest solemnly and to show the people the manner of king who should rule over them. (1 Samuel 8:5)
(3) Saul was chosen to be king
As Israel's first king, and by reason of his strange personality, Saul commands peculiar interest. Chosen possibly because he was the type of man whom Israel desired, he failed utterly to measure up to the high demand of the place to which he was called. (1 Samuel 9:1)
(4) Samuel's farewell to Israel
Having called the people togher in Gilgal, and made Saul king, Samuel availed himself of the opportunity thus presented to say his word of farewell to the people whom he had so long judged and whom he so deeply loved. With the utmost of dignity and with the noblest words he challenged Israel to witness against him. (1 Samuel 11:14)
Following are rough study notes that will be used in the Introduction to the Kingdom Stage in Israel's History:
These notes will be edited during the week and comments and questions are encouraged in the development of the Bible Study for Sunday
We now approach the most brilliant and prosperous era of Israel's history. The "dark ages" which we have studied is succeeded by this "golden age." Israel now took high rank among the nations of the earth, attaining a high development in architecture, literature and all the elements of civilization.
- Period of the Judges ends with Samuel
- Begins the 500 year period of the kings of Israel (*1095 - 586 BC)
- Covers period of about 115 years From Samuel's Boyhood through Saul's Troubled reign to the choosing of King David.
- Samuel was the last of the Judges
- Saul was first of the kings
- Psalm 89 - Brings us to a time when David is ready to permanently establish the monarchy and God is ready permanently to establish David's throne.
- Samuel (1-7)
- Saul (8-15)
- David (16-31)
- Samuel (chapter 3)
- David & Golieth (chapter 17)
- The friendship of David and Jonathan (chapter 18)
1102-987BC Period of United Kingdom suggested by Burroughs
1095-586BC Period of the Kings of Israel suggested by Mears
** Willmington's Guide to the Bible